Published Research

Cancer detection dog Buster testing samples from firefighters on the sniffing station.

Colorectal Cancer Screening with Odour Material by Canine Scent Detection
Gut published online
Publication Date: 31 January  2011
Article URL
A Labrador retriever was trained to detect colorectal cancer from exhaled breath samples and watery stool samples. The dog’s sensitivity using exhaled breath samples compared with conventional diagnosis by colonoscopy was 91% and the specificity was 99%. The sensitivity using stool samples was 97% and the specificity was 99%.

Characteristic Odour in the Blood Reveals Ovarian Carcinoma
Published in BioMed Central
Publication Date: 24 November 2010
Article URL
Two dogs were specially trained to detect ovarian cancer tissues and blood from patients with ovarian carcinoma. The tissue tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 95%, while the blood tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98%.

Olfactory Detection of Prostate Cancer by Dogs Sniffing Urine: A Step Forward in Early Diagnosis
Published online in European Urology
Publication Date: 15 October 2010
Article URL
A Belgian Malinois shepherd was trained to detect prostate cancer from urine samples. The sensitivity and specificity were both 91%. In addition, the dog detected prostate cancer in one of the “healthy” control subjects who had been previously cleared by a biopsy.

Diagnostic Accuracy of Canine Scent Detection in Early- and Late-Stage Lung and Breast Cancers
Published in Integrative Cancer Therapies
Publication Date: March 2006
Article URL
Five dogs were trained to detect Breast and lung from exhaled breath samples. Compared to biopsy-confirmed conventional diagnosis, the dogs overall sensitivity and specificity for lung cancer was 99%. For Breast cancer their overall sensitivity was 88% and their specificity was 98%. In addition, the dogs repeatedly alerted to a “healthy” control sample who was diagnosed with breast cancer 18 months later.

Olfactory Detection of Human Bladder Cancer by Dogs: Proof of Principle Study
Published in BMJ
Publication Date: 14 July 2004
Article URL
Six dogs were trained to detect bladder cancer from urine samples. Their mean success rate was 41%, compared with 14% expected by chance alone.